Heart Home > More Info on Heart Diseases
Cells line the inside of the heart muscle and valves, known as the endocardium. The outside of the heart is surrounded by a thin sac known as the pericardium. Heart diseases that can affect either the endocardium or pericardium include:
- Endocarditis, which is an inflammation of the endocardium. The heart valves are most commonly affected.
- Pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium), including constrictive pericarditis.
There are several heart diseases that people are born with. A condition of this nature is known as a congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases can affect any part of the heart, including the heart muscle, valves, or blood vessels. Types of congenital heart diseases include:
- Atrial septal defect (ASD)
- Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
- Patent ductus arteriosus
- Pulmonic stenosis
- Congenital aortic stenosis
- Coarctation of the aorta
- Tetralogy of Fallot
- Tricuspid atresia
- Pulmonary atresia
- Patent foramen ovale
- Truncus arteriosus
- Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve
- Transposition of the great vessels
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).
Other types of heart diseases that can affect any part of the heart include:
- A cardiac tumor, which can be either malignant (cancerous) or benign (noncancerous). Myxoma is the most common cardiac tumor.
- Sudden cardiac death.
- Hypertensive heart disease, which includes a number of complications of high blood pressure (hypertension) seen in the heart, such as heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or ischemic heart disease.