Heart Home > More Info on Heart Diseases

Heart Lining

Cells line the inside of the heart muscle and valves, known as the endocardium. The outside of the heart is surrounded by a thin sac known as the pericardium. Heart diseases that can affect either the endocardium or pericardium include:
  • Endocarditis, which is an inflammation of the endocardium. The heart valves are most commonly affected.  
  • Pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium), including constrictive pericarditis.

Congenital Heart Diseases

There are several heart diseases that people are born with. A condition of this nature is known as a congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases can affect any part of the heart, including the heart muscle, valves, or blood vessels. Types of congenital heart diseases include:
  • Atrial septal defect (ASD)
  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus
  • Pulmonic stenosis
  • Congenital aortic stenosis
  • Coarctation of the aorta
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Tricuspid atresia
  • Pulmonary atresia
  • Patent foramen ovale
  • Truncus arteriosus
  • Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve
  • Transposition of the great vessels
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).

Other Types of Heart Diseases

Other types of heart diseases that can affect any part of the heart include:
  • A cardiac tumor, which can be either malignant (cancerous) or benign (noncancerous). Myxoma is the most common cardiac tumor.  
  • Sudden cardiac death.  
  • Hypertensive heart disease, which includes a number of complications of high blood pressure (hypertension) seen in the heart, such as heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or ischemic heart disease.
Written by/reviewed by:
Last reviewed by: Arthur Schoenstadt, MD
Last updated/reviewed:
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